logrotate

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logrotate — утилита для архивации log файлов для Linux систем. Осуществляет автоматическую ротацию (архивацию, удаление, переименование) log-файлов.

NAME
       logrotate ─ rotates, compresses, and mails system logs

SYNOPSIS
       logrotate [-dv] [-f|--force] [-s|--state file] config_file ..

DESCRIPTION
       logrotate  is  designed  to  ease  administration  of systems that generate large numbers of log files.  It allows automatic rotation, compression,
       removal, and mailing of log files.  Each log file may be handled daily, weekly, monthly, or when it grows too large.

       Normally, logrotate is run as a daily cron job.  It will not modify a log more than once in one day unless the criterion for that log is  based  on
       the log's size and logrotate is being run more than once each day, or unless the -f or --force option is used.

       Any  number  of  config files may be given on the command line. Later config files may override the options given in earlier files, so the order in
       which the logrotate config files are listed is important.  Normally, a single config file which includes any other config files  which  are  needed
       should  be  used.   See  below for more information on how to use the include directive to accomplish this.  If a directory is given on the command
       line, every file in that directory is used as a config file.

       If no command line arguments are given, logrotate will print version and copyright information, along with a short usage summary.   If  any  errors
       occur while rotating logs, logrotate will exit with non-zero status.

OPTIONS
       -?, --help
              Prints help message.

       -d, --debug
              Turns on debug mode and implies -v.  In debug mode, no changes will be made to the logs or to the logrotate state file.

       -f, --force
              Tells  logrotate  to force the rotation, even if it doesn't think this is necessary.  Sometimes this is useful after adding new entries to a
              logrotate config file, or if old log files have been removed by hand, as the new files will be created, and logging will continue correctly.

       -m, --mail <command>
              Tells logrotate which command to use when mailing logs. This command should accept two arguments: 1) the subject of the message, and 2)  the
              recipient.  The  command  must then read a message on standard input and mail it to the recipient. The default mail command is /usr/bin/mail
              -s.

       -s, --state <statefile>
              Tells logrotate to use an alternate state file.  This is useful if logrotate is being run as a different user for various sets of log files.
              The default state file is /var/lib/logrotate/status.

       --usage
              Prints a short usage message.

       -v, --verbose
              Turns on verbose mode, ie. display messages during rotation.

CONFIGURATION FILE
       logrotate  reads  everything  about the log files it should be handling from the series of configuration files specified on the command line.  Each
       configuration file can set global options (local definitions override global ones, and later definitions override earlier ones)  and  specify  logБ─░
       files to rotate. A simple configuration file looks like this:

       # sample logrotate configuration file
       compress

       /var/log/messages {
             rotate 5
           weekly
           postrotate
               /usr/bin/killall -HUP syslogd
           endscript
       }

       "/var/log/httpd/access.log" /var/log/httpd/error.log {
           rotate 5
           mail www@my.org
           size 100k
           sharedscripts
           postrotate
               /usr/bin/killall -HUP httpd
           endscript
       }

       /var/log/news/* {
           monthly
           rotate 2
           olddir /var/log/news/old
           missingok
           postrotate
               kill -HUP `cat /var/run/inn.pid`
           endscript
           nocompress
       }

       ~/log/*.log {}

       The  first few lines set global options; in the example, logs are compressed after they are rotated.  Note that comments may appear anywhere in the
       config file as long as the first non-whitespace character on the line is a #.

       The next section of the config file defines how to handle the log file /var/log/messages. The log will go  through  five  weekly  rotations  before
       being removed. After the log file has been rotated (but before the old version of the log has been compressed), the command /sbin/killall -HUP sysБ─░
       logd will be executed.

       The next section defines the parameters for both /var/log/httpd/access.log and /var/log/httpd/error.log.  Each is rotated whenever  it  grows  over
       100k  in  size,  and  the  old  logs  files are mailed (uncompressed) to www@my.org after going through 5 rotations, rather than being removed. The
       sharedscripts means that the postrotate script will only be run once (after the old logs have been compressed), not once  for  each  log  which  is
       rotated.   Note  that  log  file  names may be enclosed in quotes (and that quotes are required if the name contains spaces).  Normal shell quoting
       rules apply, with ', ", and \ characters supported.

       The next section defines the parameters for all of the files in /var/log/news. Each file is rotated on a monthly basis.  This is considered a  sinБ─░
       gle rotation directive and if errors occur for more than one file, the log files are not compressed.

       The  last  section uses tilde expansion to rotate log files in the home directory of the current user. This is only available, if your glob library
       supports tilde expansion. GNU glob does support this.

       Please use wildcards with caution.  If you specify *, logrotate will rotate all files, including previously rotated ones.  A way around this is  to
       use the olddir directive or a more exact wildcard (such as *.log).

       If the directory /var/log/news does not exist, this will cause logrotate to report an error. This error cannot be stopped with the missingok direcБ─░
       tive.

       Here is more information on the directives which may be included in a logrotate configuration file:


       compress
              Old versions of log files are compressed with gzip(1) by default. See also nocompress.

       compresscmd
              Specifies which command to use to compress log files.  The default is gzip(1).  See also compress.

       uncompresscmd
              Specifies which command to use to uncompress log files.  The default is gunzip(1).

       compressext
              Specifies which extension to use on compressed logfiles, if compression is enabled.  The default follows that of the configured  compression
              command.

       compressoptions
              Command  line  options  may  be passed to the compression program, if one is in use.  The default, for gzip(1), is "-6" (biased towards high
              compression at the expense of speed).  If you use a different compression command, you may need to change the compressoptions to match.

       copy   Make a copy of the log file, but don't change the original at all.  This option can be used, for instance, to make a snapshot of the current
              log  file, or when some other utility needs to truncate or parse the file.  When this option is used, the create option will have no effect,
              as the old log file stays in place.

       copytruncate
              Truncate the original log file to zero size in place after creating a copy, instead of moving the old log file and optionally creating a new
              one.   It  can be used when some program cannot be told to close its logfile and thus might continue writing (appending) to the previous log
              file forever.  Note that there is a very small time slice between copying the file and truncating it, so some logging data  might  be  lost.
              When this option is used, the create option will have no effect, as the old log file stays in place.

       create mode owner group, create owner group
              Immediately  after rotation (before the postrotate script is run) the log file is created (with the same name as the log file just rotated).
              mode specifies the mode for the log file in octal (the same as chmod(2)), owner specifies the user name who will own the log file, and group
              specifies  the  group the log file will belong to. Any of the log file attributes may be omitted, in which case those attributes for the new
              file will use the same values as the original log file for the omitted attributes. This option can be disabled using the nocreate option.

       daily  Log files are rotated every day.

       dateext
              Archive old versions of log files adding a date extension like YYYYMMDD instead of simply adding a number. The extension may  be  configured
              using the dateformat and dateyesterday options.

       dateformat format_string
              Specify  the  extension  for  dateext  using the notation similar to strftime(3) function. Only %Y %m %d and %s specifiers are allowed.  The
              default value is -%Y%m%d. Note that also the character separating log name from the extension is part of the dateformat string.  The  system
              clock  must be set past Sep 9th 2001 for %s to work correctly.  Note that the datestamps generated by this format must be lexically sortable
              (i.e., first the year, then the month then the day. e.g., 2001/12/01 is ok, but 01/12/2001 is not, since 01/11/2002 would sort  lower  while
              it  is later).  This is because when using the rotate option, logrotate sorts all rotated filenames to find out which logfiles are older and
              should be removed.

       dateyesterday
              Use yesterday's instead of today's date to create the dateext extension, so that the rotated log file has a date in its  name  that  is  the
              same as the timestamps within it.

       delaycompress
              Postpone  compression of the previous log file to the next rotation cycle.  This only has effect when used in combination with compress.  It
              can be used when some program cannot be told to close its logfile and thus might continue writing to the previous log file for some time.

 extension ext
              Log files with ext extension can keep it after the rotation.  If compression  is  used,  the compression extension  (normally  .gz)  appears
              after ext. For example you have a logfile named mylog.foo and want to rotate it to mylog.1.foo.gz instead of mylog.foo.1.gz.

       ifempty
              Rotate the log file even if it is empty, overriding the notifempty option (ifempty is the default).

       include file_or_directory
              Reads  the  file given as an argument as if it was included inline where the include directive appears. If a directory is given, most of the
              files in that directory are read in alphabetic order before processing of the including file continues. The only files which are ignored are
              files which are not regular files (such as directories and named pipes) and files whose names end with one of the taboo extensions, as specБ─░
              ified by the tabooext directive.

       mail address
              When a log is rotated out of existence, it is mailed to address. If no mail should be generated by a particular log,  the  nomail  directive
              may be used.

       mailfirst
              When using the mail command, mail the just-rotated file, instead of the about-to-expire file.

       maillast
              When using the mail command, mail the about-to-expire file, instead of the just-rotated file (this is the default).

       maxage count
              Remove rotated logs older than <count> days. The age is only checked if the logfile is to be rotated. The files are mailed to the configured
              address if maillast and mail are configured.

       maxsize size
              Log files are rotated when they grow bigger than size bytes even before the additionally specified time interval (daily, weekly, monthly, or
              yearly).  The related size option is similar except that it is mutually exclusive with the time interval options, and it causes log files to
              be rotated without regard for the last rotation time.  When maxsize is used, both the size and timestamp of a log file are considered.

       minsize  size
              Log files are rotated when they grow bigger than size bytes, but not  before  the  additionally  specified  time  interval  (daily,  weekly,
              monthly,  or yearly).  The related size option is similar except that it is mutually exclusive with the time interval options, and it causes
              log files to be rotated without regard for the last rotation time.  When minsize is used, both the size and timestamp of a log file are conБ─░
              sidered.

       missingok
              If the log file is missing, go on to the next one without issuing an error message. See also nomissingok.

       monthly
              Log files are rotated the first time logrotate is run in a month (this is normally on the first day of the month).

       nocompress
              Old versions of log files are not compressed. See also compress.

       nocopy Do not copy the original log file and leave it in place.  (this overrides the copy option).

       nocopytruncate
              Do not truncate the original log file in place after creating a copy (this overrides the copytruncate option).

       nocreate
              New log files are not created (this overrides the create option).

       nodelaycompress
              Do not postpone compression of the previous log file to the next rotation cycle (this overrides the delaycompress option).


nodateext
              Do not archive  old versions of log files with date extension (this overrides the dateext option).

       nomail Do not mail old log files to any address.

       nomissingok
              If a log file does not exist, issue an error. This is the default.

       noolddir
              Logs are rotated in the directory they normally reside in (this overrides the olddir option).

       nosharedscripts
              Run  prerotate and postrotate scripts for every log file which is rotated (this is the default, and overrides the sharedscripts option). The
              absolute path to the log file is passed as first argument to the script. If the scripts exit with error, the remaining actions will  not  be
              executed for the affected log only.

       noshred
              Do not use shred when deleting old log files. See also shred.

       notifempty
              Do not rotate the log if it is empty (this overrides the ifempty option).

       olddir directory
              Logs  are moved into directory for rotation. The directory must be on the same physical device as the log file being rotated, and is assumed
              to be relative to the directory holding the log file unless an absolute path name is specified. When this option is used all old versions of
              the log end up in directory.  This option may be overridden by the noolddir option.

       postrotate/endscript
              The  lines  between  postrotate  and endscript (both of which must appear on lines by themselves) are executed (using /bin/sh) after the log
              file is rotated. These directives may only appear inside a log file definition. Normally, the absolute path to the log  file  is  passed  as
              first  argument  to the script. If sharedscripts is specified, whole pattern is passed to the script.  See also prerotate. See sharedscripts
              and nosharedscripts for error handling.

       prerotate/endscript
              The lines between prerotate and endscript (both of which must appear on lines by themselves) are executed (using  /bin/sh)  before  the  log
              file  is  rotated and only if the log will actually be rotated. These directives may only appear inside a log file definition. Normally, the
              absolute path to the log file is passed as first argument to the script.  If  sharedscripts is specified, whole pattern  is  passed  to  the
              script.  See also postrotate.  See sharedscripts and nosharedscripts for error handling.

       firstaction/endscript
              The  lines between firstaction and endscript (both of which must appear on lines by themselves) are executed (using /bin/sh) once before all
              log files that match the wildcarded pattern are rotated, before prerotate script is run and only if  at  least  one  log  will  actually  be
              rotated.   These  directives  may  only appear inside a log file definition. Whole pattern is passed to the script as first argument. If the
              script exits with error, no further processing is done. See also lastaction.

       lastaction/endscript
              The lines between lastaction and endscript (both of which must appear on lines by themselves) are executed (using /bin/sh)  once  after  all
              log  files  that  match  the  wildcarded  pattern are rotated, after postrotate script is run and only if at least one log is rotated. These
              directives may only appear inside a log file definition. Whole pattern is passed to the script as first argument. If the script  exits  with
              error, just an error message is shown (as this is the last action). See also firstaction.

       rotate count
              Log  files  are rotated count times before being removed or mailed to the address specified in a mail directive. If count is 0, old versions
              are removed rather than rotated.

size size
              Log files are rotated only if they grow bigger then size bytes. If size is followed by k, the size is assumed to be in kilobytes.  If the  M
              is  used,  the  size  is  in  megabytes, and if G is used, the size is in gigabytes. So size 100, size 100k, size 100M and size 100G are all
              valid.

       sharedscripts
              Normally, prerotate and postrotate scripts are run for each log which is rotated and the absolute path to the log file is  passed  as  first
              argument  to  the  script. That means a single script may be run multiple times for log file entries which match multiple files (such as the
              /var/log/news/* example). If sharedscripts is specified, the scripts are only run once, no matter how many logs match  the  wildcarded  patБ─░
              tern,  and  whole  pattern  is passed to them.  However, if none of the logs in the pattern require rotating, the scripts will not be run at
              all. If the scripts exit with error, the remaining actions will not be executed for any logs.  This  option  overrides  the  nosharedscripts
              option and implies create option.

       shred  Delete  log files using shred -u instead of unlink().  This should ensure that logs are not readable after their scheduled deletion; this is
              off by default.  See also noshred.

       shredcycles count
              Asks GNU shred(1) to overwrite log files count times before deletion.  Without this option, shred's default will be used.

       start count
              This is the number to use as the base for rotation. For example, if you specify 0, the logs will be created with a .0 extension as they  are
              rotated  from the original log files.  If you specify 9, log files will be created with a .9, skipping 0-8.  Files will still be rotated the
              number of times specified with the rotate directive.

       su user group
              Rotate log files set under this user and group instead of using default user/group (usually root). user specifies the  user  name  used  for
              rotation and group specifies the group used for rotation.

       tabooext [+] list
              The current taboo extension list is changed (see the include directive for information on the taboo extensions). If a + precedes the list of
              extensions, the current taboo extension list is augmented, otherwise it is replaced. At startup, the taboo extension list contains .rpmsave,
              .rpmorig, ~, .disabled, .dpkg-old, .dpkg-dist, .dpkg-new, .cfsaved, .ucf-old, .ucf-dist, .ucf-new, .rpmnew, .swp, .cfsaved, .rhn-cfg-tmp-*

       weekly Log  files are rotated if the current weekday is less than the weekday of the last rotation or if more than a week has passed since the last
              rotation. This is normally the same as rotating logs on the first day of the week, but it works better if logrotate is not run every night.

       yearly Log files are rotated if the current year is not the same as the last rotation.

FILES
       /var/lib/logrotate.status  Default state file.
       /etc/logrotate.conf        Configuration options.

SEE ALSO
       gzip(1)

NOTES
       The killall(1) program in Debian is found in the psmisc package.

AUTHORS
       Erik Troan, Preston Brown, Jan Kaluza.
       Corrections and changes for Debian by Paul Martin